Cook the linguine according to the package directions.
Meanwhile, heat the oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Season the shrimp with the pepper and cook until they begin to turn pink, about 2 minutes. Turn the shrimp, add the capers, olives, and anchovies (if using), and cook for 2 minutes more. Add the marinara sauce and cook until heated through, about 4 minutes.
Divide the drained pasta among individual bowls and spoon the shrimp and puttanesca sauce over the top.