Combine first 6 ingredients in a saucepan over medium-high heat; bring to a boil. Cook 3 minutes. Remove from heat; cool 2 minutes. Stir in sake.
Place cauliflower and remaining ingredients in a large zip-top plastic bag. Add sake mixture to bag; seal and marinate in refrigerator 8 hours or overnight, turning bag occasionally. Remove vegetables from bag; discard marinade.