Cook noodles in a Dutch oven according to package directions, omitting salt and fat. Rinse with cold water; drain.
Bring water and broth to a boil in pan. Add noodles, edamame, and next 6 ingredients (edamame through onions). Remove from heat.
Combine juice, ginger, miso, and chile paste, stirring with a whisk; stir into soup. Sprinkle with cilantro; serve with lime wedges, if desired.