Heat oil in a small saucepan over medium heat. Stir in garlic. Remove pan from heat; let stand 5 minutes. Remove garlic from oil with a slotted spoon; discard garlic.
Place bread on a baking sheet. Drizzle bread with 1 1/2 teaspoons oil; toss to coat. Arrange bread in an even layer. Broil 6 inches from heat for 2 minutes or until lightly browned, stirring after 1 minute. Turn oven off. Place pan on middle oven rack; close oven door.
Add juice and next 6 ingredients (through egg yolk) to remaining oil in pan. Cook over medium heat 30 seconds or until mixture thickens and begins to bubble around edges, stirring constantly. Pour mixture into a small bowl; cool to room temperature.
Place lettuce in a large bowl. Add egg mixture, cheese, and pepper; toss gently to coat. Add bread; toss gently to combine. Serve immediately.