Cut egg in half lengthwise, and remove and reserve yolk for another use. Mince egg white.
Combine juice and next 8 ingredients (juice through garlic) in a small bowl; stir well with a whisk. Combine egg white, lemon juice mixture, and lettuce in a large bowl; toss well. Divide lettuce mixture evenly among each of 4 bowls; sprinkle each with 1/4 cup croutons and 2 teaspoons cheese.