Combine first 3 ingredients in a large bowl; stir well with a whisk. Cover and chill 30 minutes.
Add cream cheese; beat with a mixer at medium speed until blended. Fold in whipped topping.
Split ladyfingers in half lengthwise. Arrange 16 halves in a single layer in an 8- inch square baking dish. Drizzle with 1/3 cup coffee. Spread one-third of pudding mixture evenly over ladyfingers. Repeat procedure twice with remaining ladyfingers, coffee, and pudding mixture. Cover and chill 8 hours. Sprinkle with cocoa.