Use this alphabetical list to find common substitutes for ingredients you may not have on hand.

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December 04, 2017

A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T V W Y Z

Ingredient:Substitute with:
acorn squash butternut squash, pumpkin 
allspice (1 tsp)1/2 tsp ground cinnamon + 1/2 tsp ground cloves + pinch of ground nutmeg
almond butter peanut butter, cashew butter 
almond extract (1/2 tsp)vanilla extract (3/4 tsp)
amberjackmahi-mahi, grouper, tilefish, mullet
applespears or quinces
apple juiceapple cider, pear cider, or white grape juice
apple pie spice (1 tbsp)2 tsp ground cinnamon + 1 tsp ground nutmeg + pinch ground allspice
applesaucepumpkin puree or plum puree
arugulawatercress, baby spinach, belgian endive, escarole, radicchio
Asiago cheeseParmesan cheese, Pecorino Romano cheese
asparagusbroccoli, canned hearts of palm, green beans
avocadocooked chayote squash

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
baconpancetta, prosciutto, smoked sausage, ham
baking powder (1 tsp)1/4 tsp baking soda + 1/4 cornstarch + 1/2 tsp cream of tartar
barbecue sauce (1 cup)1 cup ketchup + 1/2 to 1 tsp liquid smoke seasoning
beer (for soups and stews)chicken or beef stock, red wine, sake
belgian endiveradicchio, arugula, watercress
bell pepper; roasted redchopped jarred pimientos
blackberriesloganberries, boysenberries, raspberries
blueberrieshuckleberries, red currants, raspberries, strawberries
blue cheesefeta cheese
bok choynapa cabbage, collard greens
boysenberriesblackberries, raspberries
dry bread crumbscrushed tortilla chips, crushed dry stuffing mix, crushed pretzels, crushed cornflakes, crushed potato chips
broccolicauliflower
brussels sproutsbroccoli florets, chopped green cabbage
butter1/4 cup buttermilk + 1/4 cup unsweetened applesauce 
buttermilk1 tbsp lemon juice or vinegar + enough milk to equal 1 cup (for baking, let stand for a few minutes before using), plain yogurt, sour cream
butternut squashpumpkin, sweet potato

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
Canadian baconsmoked ham, pancetta, bacon
caraway seedsdill seeds, anise seeds
cardamom (1/2 tsp)1/4 tsp ground cinnamon + 1/4 tsp ground nutmeg or cloves 
carrotsparnsips, turnips
catfishtilapia, grouper
cauliflowerbroccoli
cayenne pepperchipotle powder, hot paprika, crushed red papper flakes, chili powder
celery saltOld Bay seasoning
celery seedcelery salt, dill seeds
chardturnip greens, spinach, mustard greens
Cheddar cheeseColby cheese, American cheese
chicken (ground)ground turkey, veal, turkey breast
chile pepper (fresh, minced)1 tsp hot pepper sauce, 1 to 3 tsp chile paste, 1/4 to 1/2 tsp ground cayenne, 3/4 tsp crushed red pepper flakes, 1 tsp paprika
chile powder (1 tsp)1 tsp cayenne pepper, 1 to 2 tsp paprika, 1 tsp chili powder
chili powder (1 tsp)1/2 to 1 tsp cayenne papper, 1 to 2 tsp paprika, 1 tsp chile oil
chocolate, bittersweet (1oz)2 heaping tbsp unsweetened cocoa powder + 1 to 1/3 tbsp granulated sugar + 1 1/2 tsp butter, shortening, or vegetable oil
chocolate, semisweet (1 oz)3 tbsp unsweetened cocoa powder + 1 to 1/2 tbsp granulated sugar + 1 1/2 tsp butter, shortening, or vegetable oil
chocolate, unsweetened (1 oz)3 tbsp unsweetened cocoa powder + 1 tbsp butter, shortening, or vegetable oil
chorizoandouille sausage, hot Italian sausage
clovesallspice
coffee liqueur (3 tbsp)3 tbsp water + 3/4 tsp insant coffee granules, 3 tbsp cognac, 3 tbsp rum
collardskale, mature spinach, mustard greens, turnip greens
corned beefpastrami
cornstarch (1 tbsp, for thickening)flour (3 tbsp)
corn syrup, dark (1 cup)honey, 1 1/4 cup packed brown sugar dissolved in 1/4 cup hot water (or liquid from recipe)
corn syrup, light (1 cup)honey, 1 1/4 cups granulated sugar dissolved in 1/4 cup hot water (or liquid from recipe); molasses
cottage cheesericotta cheese
couscousquinoa, brown rice
crab boil seasoningOld Bay seasoning; pickling spice
cracker crumbs (1 cup)1 1/4 cup dry bread crumbs, 1 1/2 cup crushed croutons or stuffing cubes, 1 cup panko
crayfishshrimp, lobster, crab
cream cheesericotta cheese (for cooking)
cream, half-and-half (1 cup)1 tbsp melted unsalted butter + enough whole milk to equal 1 cup, 3/4 cup whole milk + 1/4 cup heavy or whipping cream, 1 cup evaporated milk (for baking)
cream, light (1 cup)3 tbsp melted unsalted butter + whole milk to equal 1 cup; 1/2 cup heavy or whipping cream plus 1/2 cup whole milk; 1/2 cup evaporated milk + 1/2 cup whole milk
cream, light whipping (1 cup)3/4 cup whole milk + 1/4 cup melted unsalted butter, 1 cup heavy or whipping cream
cream of tartar (1 tsp)1 tbsp distilled white vinegar or lemon juice (to add acidity to liquids)
cream, whipping (1 cup)2/3 cup whole milk + 1/3 cup melted unsalted butter, 2/3 cup evaporated milk
croissantscrescent rolls from refrigerated dough
cucumbersmall zucchini
cumin, groundchili powder, ground coriander

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
dilltarragon
dill seedscaraway seeds, celery seeds

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
egg noodles dried linguine, fettuccine, pappardelle
eggplantportobello mushroom caps, zucchini, yellow squash
egg substitute (3 tbsp)2 egg whites, 1 large egg
egg white (1 lg)2 tsp meringue powder + 3 tbsp water, 1 tbsp ground flaxseed simmered in 3 tbsp water
egg2 lg whole egg yolks + 1 tbsp cold water, 3 tbsp vegetable oil + 1 tbsp water (for baking), 1 tsp cornstarch + 3 tbsp additional liquid in recipe (for thickening), 3 tbsp water/milk + 3 tbsp flour + 1 1/2 tsp shortening + 1/2 tsp baking powder (for baking)
evaporated milk (1 cup)2 1/4 cups whole milk, simmered until reduced to 1 cup

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
fish saucesoy sauce, fermented tofu
flaxseedwheat germ, wheat bran, oat bran, butter/margarine/oil (to replace ground flaxseed as fat)

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
garam marsala (1 tbsp)1/2 tsp ground cumin + 1/2 tsp ground coriander + 1/2 tsp ground black pepper + 1/2 tsp ground cardamom + 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon + 1/4 tsp ground cloves (toast spices just before using)
garlic (1 clove fresh)1/2 to 1 tsp minced shallots, 1/8 tsp garlic powder, 1/4 tsp granulated garlic, 1/2 tsp garlic salt (omit 1/2 tsp salt from recipe)
garlic salt (1 tsp)1/4 tsp garlic powder + 3/4 tsp salt
ginger, crystallized (3 tbsp)2 tsp minced fresh ginger + 1/8 to 1/2 tsp granulated sugar, 1/8 tsp ground ginger
ginger, fresh (1 tbsp)1/8 tsp ground ginger (for baking)
ginger, ground (1 tsp, for baking)1 tbsp grated or minced fresh ginger, 1 tsp pumpkin pie spice, 1 tsp allspice
Greek seasoning (1 tsp)1 tsp dried oregano + 3/4 tsp onion powder + 3/4 tsp garlic powder + 1/2 tsp ground black pepper + 1/4 tsp dried mint + pinch of cinnamon + pinch of nutmeg
grenadine (1 tsp)2 to 3 tsp pomegranate juice (reduce liquid and add sugar as necessary), 1 tsp raspberry syrup
grouperstriped bass, cod, catfish, red snapper

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
haddockcod, pollock, blackfish, grouper, red snapper, sea bass
halibutcod, haddock, striped bass
harissa (1 tbsp)chile paste, 1 to 3 tsp hot sauce
hearts of palmcanned or marinated artichoke hearts, cooked asparagus
herbes de Provence (3 tbsp)2 tsp dried thyme + 2 tsp dried savory + 1 tsp dried marjoram + 1 tsp dried lavender + 1/2 tsp dried rosemary + 1/2 tsp fennel seeds + 1 crushed bay leaf
honey (1 cup)1 1/4 cups granulated sugar + 1/4 cup liquid called for in recipe, 1/2 cup granulated sugar + 3/4 cup maple syrup

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
Italian seasoning (2 tsp)1 tsp dried oregano + 1/2 tsp dried basil + 1/2 tsp dried thyme

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
kalecollard greens, turnip greens, mustard greens, spinach
ketchup (1 cup)1 cup tomato sauce + 1/4 cup granulated sugar + 3 tbsp apple cider vinegar + 1/2 tsp salt + pinch ground cloves, chili sauce, barbecue sauce
kielbasaCajun andouille sausage, Spanish chorizo

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
lambbeef, pork, veal, mutton
lard (1 cup)vegetable shortening, 1 cup + 3 tbsp unsalted butter, bacon fat
leeks (chopped)chopped green onions or scallions, chopped shallots, chopped sweet or storage onions
lemongrass (1 stalk)1 1/2 tsp lemon zest + 1/8 minced fresh ginger
lemon pepper seasoning (1 tsp)1/2 tsp grated fresh lemon zest + 1/4 tsp salt + 1/8 tsp ground black pepper
lima beansgreen peas, edamame, sugar snap peas, chickpeas, red kidney peas, black-eyed peas, cannellini beans
liquid smoke (2 drops)2 slices bacon, 1 tsp canning liquid from canned chipotle peppers, 1/2 tsp paprika
lobstercrayfish, jumbo shrimp, crab, scallops

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
mackerelmahi-mahi, pompano, striped bass, tuna
mahi-mahituna, pompano, swordfish
marjoramsweet basil, summer savory
marscapone cheese (1 cup)1/2 cup cream cheese + 1/2 cup sour cream blended until smooth, 3/4 cup cream cheese + 1/4 cup heavy or whipping cream blended until smooth, 1/2 cup ricotta cheese + 1/2 cup heavy or whipping cream blended until smooth
mayonnaisesour cream, yogurt
milk, whole1 cup minus 3 tbsp fat-free milk + 3 tbsp melted butter or margarine
mintbasil
mozzarella cheeseprovolone cheese, gouda cheese
musselsoysters, soft-shelled or littleneck clams, scallops
mustard greensturnip greens, arugula, collard greens, kale

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
napa cabbagegreen or red cabbage, collard greens
nectarinespeaches, plums, apricots, cherries
nutmegground mace, ground allspice, ground cinnamon, apple pie spice, pumpkin pie spice

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
oat flour (1 cup)1 1/4 cups old-fashioned oatmeal, ground in blender
oil, vegetable (1/2 cup)1/4 cup buttermilk + 1/4 cup well-drained, unsweetened applesauce or baby food prunes (for baking)
okra (2 cups)green beans, asparagus, broccoli, 1 tbsp filé powder or 2 tsp cornstarch mixed with 1 tbsp cold water (for thickening, especially in gumbo)
Old Bay seasoningcrab boil, pickling spice
olive oilcorn oil, canola oil, peanut oil
onion flakes (1 tbsp)3/4 to 1 tsp onion powder, 1/2 cup chopped fresh or frozen onion
onion, green (1 bunch)1 bunch scallions, 3 cups chopped shallots
onion (1 cup)2 tbsp dried onion flakes, 1 1/2 to 2 tsp onion powder
orange roughyflounder, red snapper, tilapia
oreganomarjoram, thyme, fresh basil, summer savory
oystersmussels, soft-shell clams, littleneck clams, scallops
oyster liquorfresh or bottled clam juice
oyster sauce2 tsp soy sauce or teriyaki sauce + 1 tsp canning liquid from canned oysters + pinch of sugar (if using soy sauce)

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
pancettaCanadian bacon, bacon, prosciutto
papayamango, peaches, nectarines
paprika chili powder
Parmesan cheesePecorino Romano cheese, aged Asiago cheese
peachesnectarines, apricots, plums, cherries, mango
pearsapples, asian pears, quinces
Pecorino cheeseParmesan cheese, aged Asiago cheese
pickling spicecrab boil, Old Bay seasoning
pineapplepapaya, guava, mango
pineapple juiceorange juice, grapefruit juice
pine nutswalnuts, almonds, pecans
pomegranate juicecranberry juice
pompanomahi-mahi, tuna
poultry seasoning (1 tsp)3/4 tsp dried thyme + 1/2 tsp crushed or rubbed sage + 1/2 tsp dried marjoram + 1/4 tsp ground black pepper
Provolone cheesemozzarella cheese, Fontina cheese
puff pastryphyllo dough, pie dough
pumpkinbutternut squash, sweet potato
pumpkin pie spice (1 tsp)1/2 tsp ground cinnamon + 1/4 tsp ground nutmeg + 1/4 tsp ground ginger + 1/8 tsp groud cloves; 1 tsp apple pie spice

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
quailyoung pheasant,  cornish hen
queso frescofeta cheese (rinsed to remove some salt)
quinoacouscous, bulgur

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
radicchiobelgian endive, arugula, watercress
radishesturnips, parsnips
raisinsother dried fruits like apricots, blueberries, cranberries, or cherries
raspberriesstrawberries, blackberries
red cabbagegreen cabbage, brussels sprouts, napa cabbage
red snapperstriped bass, grouper, halibut
rhubarbcranberries
ricotta cheesepuréed cottage cheese, fromage blanc, mashed firm tofu
romaine lettuceiceberg lettuce, butterhead lettuce
romano cheeseParmesan cheese, aged Asiago cheese
rosemarysummer savory, basil, oregano
rumbrandy, bourbon
rutabagaturnips, broccoli stems

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
saffron (10-15 threads)1/2 tsp turmeric + 1/2 tsp mild paprika
sage (1 tbsp)3 to 4 tsp summer savory thyme, basil, or oregano; 1 tbsp rosemary; 1 to 2 tsp poultry seasoning
salamipepperoni, spanish chorizo, prosciutto, summer sausage
salmontrout, striped bass, tuna
savory (1 tbsp)2 to 3 tsp chopped thyme or rosemary, 1 to 1 1/2 tsp thyme + 1 to 1/2 tsp mint, 1 to 2 tsp sage, 1 tsp herbes de Provence
scallion (1 bunch)1 bunch green onions, 3 to 4 cups chopped leeks
scallopsmussels, clams, oysters, shrimp, lobster
sesame oil, toasted (1 tsp)2 tsp crushed and toasted sesame seeds + 1 tsp peanut oil
sesame seedswhite or black poppy seeds; finely chopped peanuts, almonds, or cashews
shallot (1 chopped)1/4 cup chopped leeks or red onions + 1/2 tsp minced garlic; 1/4 cup chopped green onions or scallions (white and light green parts only)
sherrysake, port, dry white wine + pinch of sugar
shrimpprawns, crab, lobster, scallops
snapperstriped bass, grouper, halibut
soleflounder, cod, whiting
sorghum molasseslight or dark corn syrup, honey, pure maple syrup
sour creamplain yogurt, 1/3 melted unsalted butter + 3/4 cup milk + 1 tsp lemon juice (for baking)
soy sauce (1 tbsp)scant 3/4 tsp kosher salt + 1/2 tsp granulated sugar dissolved in 1 tbsp hot water, teriyaki sauce
spinachbeet greens, turnip greens, kale, arugula, watercess
stock, beef (1 cup)1 cup boiling water + 1 beef bouillon cube, 1 cup canned beef broth, 1 cup red wine or beer (can replace up to half of beef stock in sauce and stews)
stock, chicken (1 cup)1 cup boiling water + 1 chicken bouillon cube, 1 cup canned chicken broth
stock, vegetable (1 cup)1 cup boiling water + 1 vegetable bouillon cube, 1 cup canned vegetable broth
strawberriesraspberries, blueberries
striped bassgrouper, red snapper
sugar, confectioner's (1 cup)1/2 cup +  1 1/2 tbsp granulated sugar + 3/4 tsp cornstarch, fine ground in blender or food processor
sugar, dark brown (1 packed cup)1 cup granulated sugar + 2 to 3 tbsp molasses
sugar, light brown (1 packed cup)1 cup granulated sugar + 1 to 2 tbsp molasses, 1/2 cup dark brown sugar + 1/2 cup granulated sugar
summer sausagesalami or other dry sausage, pepperoni, bologna
sweetened condensed milk (1 14 oz can)1 cup evaporated milk + 1 1/4 cups granulated sugar, heated until sugar dissolves
sweet potatopumpkin, butternut squash
Swiss cheeseProvolone cheese, Gruyère cheese
swordfishtuna, mahi-mahi, grouper, halibut

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
taco seasoning (1 tbsp)2 tsp pure chile powder + 1/4 tsp dried oregano + 1/4 tsp ground cumin + 1/8 tsp garlic powder + 1/8 tsp onion powder + pinch of cayenne pepper + salt to taste
tahini (1 cup)3/4 cup peanut butter + 1/4 cup untoasted sesame oil
tarragondill 
tequilavodka, light rum
teriyaki sauce (1/2 cup)1/3 cup soy sauce + 3 tbsp rice vinegar + 3 tsp sugar or honey
thymemarjoram, oregano, basil, summer savory
tilapiared snapper, orange roughy, sole, flounder
tomatoes (1 lb)1 1/2 cups canned whole tomatoes, 3 tbsp tomato paste (to replace cooked tomatoes)
tomato juice (1 cup)1/2 cup tomato purée or tomato sauce + 1/2 cup water, 1/4 cup tomato paste + 3/4 cup water
tomato paste (1 tbsp)2 to 3 tbsp tomato purée or tomato sauce, boil until reduced to 1 tbsp
tomato purée (1 cup)1/3 cup tomato paste + 2/3 cup water, tomato sauce
tomato sauce (1 cup)1/2 cup tomato paste + 1/2 cup water, 1 cup canned stewed tomatoes, blended until smooth
troutsalmon, ocean perch
tunaswordfish, mahi-mahi, striped bass, salmon
turmeric (1/4 to 1/2 tsp)1/4 to 1/2 tsp ground ginger + 1 to 2 tsp minced fresh ginger, 5 to 7 saffron threads, 1/2 tsp curry powder
turnips parsnips, rutabaga, broccoli stems
turnip greensmustard greens, collards, kale, mature spinach

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
vanilla bean (1 8-inch pod)2 to 3 tsp vanilla extract
vegetable shortening (1 cup)1 cup + 2 tbsp unsalted butter (baking), 1 cup bacon fat (sautéing and frying)
vermouthdry sherry, dry white wine
vinegarlemon juice or lime juice (for dressings, marinades, sauces, and deglazing pans)
vodkagin, white rum, tequila

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
walnutspine nuts, pecans, almonds
wasabi (1 tbsp)1 tbsp well-drained prepared horseradish, 1 tbsp mustard powder + 1 tsp water (mix, cover, and let rest for 15 minutes)
watermelonhoneydew melon
whipped cream (1 cup)12 oz can evaporated milk, chilled overnight, mixed with 1 tbsp lemon juice, whipped until stiff, beat in 1 tsp vanilla extract and 1/4 cup confectioner's sugar
whiskeycognac, brandy, or rum
whitefishperch, lake trout
whitingcod, flounder, ocean perch, red snapper
wine, red (1 cup)3/4 cup red grape juice + 2 tbsp red wine vinegar or lemon juice + 2 tbsp water (for marinades), beef stock (for sauces and stews)
wine, white (1 cup)3/4 cup white grape juice, apple juice, or apple cider + 1/4 cup white wine vinegar or lemon juice (for marinades), sherry or vermouth, sake, chicken or vegetable stock (for sauce and stews)
worcestershire sauce (1 tbsp)2 tsp soy sauce + 4 drops hot pepper sauce + 1/4 lemon juice + 1/4 tsp granulated sugar

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
yellow squashzucchini, pattypan squash
yogurtsour cream, crème fraîche, silken tofu (blended), mayonnaise

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Ingredient:Substitute with:
zucchiniyellow squash, pattypan squash

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