Ingredient Substitutions

Ingredient: Substitute with:
acorn squash  butternut squash, pumpkin 
allspice (1 tsp) 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon + 1/2 tsp ground cloves + pinch of ground nutmeg
almond butter  peanut butter, cashew butter 
almond extract (1/2 tsp) vanilla extract (3/4 tsp)
amberjack mahi-mahi, grouper, tilefish, mullet
apples pears or quinces
apple juice apple cider, pear cider, or white grape juice
apple pie spice (1 tbsp) 2 tsp ground cinnamon + 1 tsp ground nutmeg + pinch ground allspice
applesauce pumpkin puree or plum puree
arugula watercress, baby spinach, belgian endive, escarole, radicchio
Asiago cheese Parmesan cheese, Pecorino Romano cheese
asparagus broccoli, canned hearts of palm, green beans
avocado cooked chayote squash
Ingredient: Substitute with:
bacon pancetta, prosciutto, smoked sausage, ham
baking powder (1 tsp) 1/4 tsp baking soda + 1/4 cornstarch + 1/2 tsp cream of tartar
barbecue sauce (1 cup) 1 cup ketchup + 1/2 to 1 tsp liquid smoke seasoning
beer (for soups and stews) chicken or beef stock, red wine, sake
belgian endive radicchio, arugula, watercress
bell pepper; roasted red chopped jarred pimientos
blackberries loganberries, boysenberries, raspberries
blueberries huckleberries, red currants, raspberries, strawberries
blue cheese feta cheese
bok choy napa cabbage, collard greens
boysenberries blackberries, raspberries
dry bread crumbs crushed tortilla chips, crushed dry stuffing mix, crushed pretzels, crushed cornflakes, crushed potato chips
broccoli cauliflower
brussels sprouts broccoli florets, chopped green cabbage
butter 1/4 cup buttermilk + 1/4 cup unsweetened applesauce 
buttermilk 1 tbsp lemon juice or vinegar + enough milk to equal 1 cup (for baking, let stand for a few minutes before using), plain yogurt, sour cream
butternut squash pumpkin, sweet potato
Ingredient: Substitute with:
Canadian bacon smoked ham, pancetta, bacon
caraway seeds dill seeds, anise seeds
cardamom (1/2 tsp) 1/4 tsp ground cinnamon + 1/4 tsp ground nutmeg or cloves 
carrots parnsips, turnips
catfish tilapia, grouper
cauliflower broccoli
cayenne pepper chipotle powder, hot paprika, crushed red papper flakes, chili powder
celery salt Old Bay seasoning
celery seed celery salt, dill seeds
chard turnip greens, spinach, mustard greens
Cheddar cheese Colby cheese, American cheese
chicken (ground) ground turkey, veal, turkey breast
chile pepper (fresh, minced) 1 tsp hot pepper sauce, 1 to 3 tsp chile paste, 1/4 to 1/2 tsp ground cayenne, 3/4 tsp crushed red pepper flakes, 1 tsp paprika
chile powder (1 tsp) 1 tsp cayenne pepper, 1 to 2 tsp paprika, 1 tsp chili powder
chili powder (1 tsp) 1/2 to 1 tsp cayenne papper, 1 to 2 tsp paprika, 1 tsp chile oil
chocolate, bittersweet (1oz) 2 heaping tbsp unsweetened cocoa powder + 1 to 1/3 tbsp granulated sugar + 1 1/2 tsp butter, shortening, or vegetable oil
chocolate, semisweet (1 oz) 3 tbsp unsweetened cocoa powder + 1 to 1/2 tbsp granulated sugar + 1 1/2 tsp butter, shortening, or vegetable oil
chocolate, unsweetened (1 oz) 3 tbsp unsweetened cocoa powder + 1 tbsp butter, shortening, or vegetable oil
chorizo andouille sausage, hot Italian sausage
cloves allspice
coffee liqueur (3 tbsp) 3 tbsp water + 3/4 tsp insant coffee granules, 3 tbsp cognac, 3 tbsp rum
collards kale, mature spinach, mustard greens, turnip greens
corned beef pastrami
cornstarch (1 tbsp, for thickening) flour (3 tbsp)
corn syrup, dark (1 cup) honey, 1 1/4 cup packed brown sugar dissolved in 1/4 cup hot water (or liquid from recipe)
corn syrup, light (1 cup) honey, 1 1/4 cups granulated sugar dissolved in 1/4 cup hot water (or liquid from recipe); molasses
cottage cheese ricotta cheese
couscous quinoa, brown rice
crab boil seasoning Old Bay seasoning; pickling spice
cracker crumbs (1 cup) 1 1/4 cup dry bread crumbs, 1 1/2 cup crushed croutons or stuffing cubes, 1 cup panko
crayfish shrimp, lobster, crab
cream cheese ricotta cheese (for cooking)
cream, half-and-half (1 cup) 1 tbsp melted unsalted butter + enough whole milk to equal 1 cup, 3/4 cup whole milk + 1/4 cup heavy or whipping cream, 1 cup evaporated milk (for baking)
cream, light (1 cup) 3 tbsp melted unsalted butter + whole milk to equal 1 cup; 1/2 cup heavy or whipping cream plus 1/2 cup whole milk; 1/2 cup evaporated milk + 1/2 cup whole milk
cream, light whipping (1 cup) 3/4 cup whole milk + 1/4 cup melted unsalted butter, 1 cup heavy or whipping cream
cream of tartar (1 tsp) 1 tbsp distilled white vinegar or lemon juice (to add acidity to liquids)
cream, whipping (1 cup) 2/3 cup whole milk + 1/3 cup melted unsalted butter, 2/3 cup evaporated milk
croissants crescent rolls from refrigerated dough
cucumber small zucchini
cumin, ground chili powder, ground coriander
Ingredient: Substitute with:
dill tarragon
dill seeds caraway seeds, celery seeds
Ingredient: Substitute with:
egg noodles  dried linguine, fettuccine, pappardelle
eggplant portobello mushroom caps, zucchini, yellow squash
egg substitute (3 tbsp) 2 egg whites, 1 large egg
egg white (1 lg) 2 tsp meringue powder + 3 tbsp water, 1 tbsp ground flaxseed simmered in 3 tbsp water
egg 2 lg whole egg yolks + 1 tbsp cold water, 3 tbsp vegetable oil + 1 tbsp water (for baking), 1 tsp cornstarch + 3 tbsp additional liquid in recipe (for thickening), 3 tbsp water/milk + 3 tbsp flour + 1 1/2 tsp shortening + 1/2 tsp baking powder (for baking)
evaporated milk (1 cup) 2 1/4 cups whole milk, simmered until reduced to 1 cup
Ingredient: Substitute with:
fish sauce soy sauce, fermented tofu
flaxseed wheat germ, wheat bran, oat bran, butter/margarine/oil (to replace ground flaxseed as fat)
Ingredient: Substitute with:
garam marsala (1 tbsp) 1/2 tsp ground cumin + 1/2 tsp ground coriander + 1/2 tsp ground black pepper + 1/2 tsp ground cardamom + 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon + 1/4 tsp ground cloves (toast spices just before using)
garlic (1 clove fresh) 1/2 to 1 tsp minced shallots, 1/8 tsp garlic powder, 1/4 tsp granulated garlic, 1/2 tsp garlic salt (omit 1/2 tsp salt from recipe)
garlic salt (1 tsp) 1/4 tsp garlic powder + 3/4 tsp salt
ginger, crystallized (3 tbsp) 2 tsp minced fresh ginger + 1/8 to 1/2 tsp granulated sugar, 1/8 tsp ground ginger
ginger, fresh (1 tbsp) 1/8 tsp ground ginger (for baking)
ginger, ground (1 tsp, for baking) 1 tbsp grated or minced fresh ginger, 1 tsp pumpkin pie spice, 1 tsp allspice
Greek seasoning (1 tsp) 1 tsp dried oregano + 3/4 tsp onion powder + 3/4 tsp garlic powder + 1/2 tsp ground black pepper + 1/4 tsp dried mint + pinch of cinnamon + pinch of nutmeg
grenadine (1 tsp) 2 to 3 tsp pomegranate juice (reduce liquid and add sugar as necessary), 1 tsp raspberry syrup
grouper striped bass, cod, catfish, red snapper
Ingredient: Substitute with:
haddock cod, pollock, blackfish, grouper, red snapper, sea bass
halibut cod, haddock, striped bass
harissa (1 tbsp) chile paste, 1 to 3 tsp hot sauce
hearts of palm canned or marinated artichoke hearts, cooked asparagus
herbes de Provence (3 tbsp) 2 tsp dried thyme + 2 tsp dried savory + 1 tsp dried marjoram + 1 tsp dried lavender + 1/2 tsp dried rosemary + 1/2 tsp fennel seeds + 1 crushed bay leaf
honey (1 cup) 1 1/4 cups granulated sugar + 1/4 cup liquid called for in recipe, 1/2 cup granulated sugar + 3/4 cup maple syrup
Ingredient: Substitute with:
Italian seasoning (2 tsp) 1 tsp dried oregano + 1/2 tsp dried basil + 1/2 tsp dried thyme
Ingredient: Substitute with:
kale collard greens, turnip greens, mustard greens, spinach
ketchup (1 cup) 1 cup tomato sauce + 1/4 cup granulated sugar + 3 tbsp apple cider vinegar + 1/2 tsp salt + pinch ground cloves, chili sauce, barbecue sauce
kielbasa Cajun andouille sausage, Spanish chorizo
Ingredient: Substitute with:
lamb beef, pork, veal, mutton
lard (1 cup) vegetable shortening, 1 cup + 3 tbsp unsalted butter, bacon fat
leeks (chopped) chopped green onions or scallions, chopped shallots, chopped sweet or storage onions
lemongrass (1 stalk) 1 1/2 tsp lemon zest + 1/8 minced fresh ginger
lemon pepper seasoning (1 tsp) 1/2 tsp grated fresh lemon zest + 1/4 tsp salt + 1/8 tsp ground black pepper
lima beans green peas, edamame, sugar snap peas, chickpeas, red kidney peas, black-eyed peas, cannellini beans
liquid smoke (2 drops) 2 slices bacon, 1 tsp canning liquid from canned chipotle peppers, 1/2 tsp paprika
lobster crayfish, jumbo shrimp, crab, scallops
Ingredient: Substitute with:
mackerel mahi-mahi, pompano, striped bass, tuna
mahi-mahi tuna, pompano, swordfish
marjoram sweet basil, summer savory
marscapone cheese (1 cup) 1/2 cup cream cheese + 1/2 cup sour cream blended until smooth, 3/4 cup cream cheese + 1/4 cup heavy or whipping cream blended until smooth, 1/2 cup ricotta cheese + 1/2 cup heavy or whipping cream blended until smooth
mayonnaise sour cream, yogurt
milk, whole 1 cup minus 3 tbsp fat-free milk + 3 tbsp melted butter or margarine
mint basil
mozzarella cheese provolone cheese, gouda cheese
mussels oysters, soft-shelled or littleneck clams, scallops
mustard greens turnip greens, arugula, collard greens, kale
Ingredient: Substitute with:
napa cabbage green or red cabbage, collard greens
nectarines peaches, plums, apricots, cherries
nutmeg ground mace, ground allspice, ground cinnamon, apple pie spice, pumpkin pie spice
Ingredient: Substitute with:
oat flour (1 cup) 1 1/4 cups old-fashioned oatmeal, ground in blender
oil, vegetable (1/2 cup) 1/4 cup buttermilk + 1/4 cup well-drained, unsweetened applesauce or baby food prunes (for baking)
okra (2 cups) green beans, asparagus, broccoli, 1 tbsp filé powder or 2 tsp cornstarch mixed with 1 tbsp cold water (for thickening, especially in gumbo)
Old Bay seasoning crab boil, pickling spice
olive oil corn oil, canola oil, peanut oil
onion flakes (1 tbsp) 3/4 to 1 tsp onion powder, 1/2 cup chopped fresh or frozen onion
onion, green (1 bunch) 1 bunch scallions, 3 cups chopped shallots
onion (1 cup) 2 tbsp dried onion flakes, 1 1/2 to 2 tsp onion powder
orange roughy flounder, red snapper, tilapia
oregano marjoram, thyme, fresh basil, summer savory
oysters mussels, soft-shell clams, littleneck clams, scallops
oyster liquor fresh or bottled clam juice
oyster sauce 2 tsp soy sauce or teriyaki sauce + 1 tsp canning liquid from canned oysters + pinch of sugar (if using soy sauce)
Ingredient: Substitute with:
pancetta Canadian bacon, bacon, prosciutto
papaya mango, peaches, nectarines
paprika  chili powder
Parmesan cheese Pecorino Romano cheese, aged Asiago cheese
peaches nectarines, apricots, plums, cherries, mango
pears apples, asian pears, quinces
Pecorino cheese Parmesan cheese, aged Asiago cheese
pickling spice crab boil, Old Bay seasoning
pineapple papaya, guava, mango
pineapple juice orange juice, grapefruit juice
pine nuts walnuts, almonds, pecans
pomegranate juice cranberry juice
pompano mahi-mahi, tuna
poultry seasoning (1 tsp) 3/4 tsp dried thyme + 1/2 tsp crushed or rubbed sage + 1/2 tsp dried marjoram + 1/4 tsp ground black pepper
Provolone cheese mozzarella cheese, Fontina cheese
puff pastry phyllo dough, pie dough
pumpkin butternut squash, sweet potato
pumpkin pie spice (1 tsp) 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon + 1/4 tsp ground nutmeg + 1/4 tsp ground ginger + 1/8 tsp groud cloves; 1 tsp apple pie spice
Ingredient: Substitute with:
quail young pheasant,  cornish hen
queso fresco feta cheese (rinsed to remove some salt)
quinoa couscous, bulgur
Ingredient: Substitute with:
radicchio belgian endive, arugula, watercress
radishes turnips, parsnips
raisins other dried fruits like apricots, blueberries, cranberries, or cherries
raspberries strawberries, blackberries
red cabbage green cabbage, brussels sprouts, napa cabbage
red snapper striped bass, grouper, halibut
rhubarb cranberries
ricotta cheese puréed cottage cheese, fromage blanc, mashed firm tofu
romaine lettuce iceberg lettuce, butterhead lettuce
romano cheese Parmesan cheese, aged Asiago cheese
rosemary summer savory, basil, oregano
rum brandy, bourbon
rutabaga turnips, broccoli stems
Ingredient: Substitute with:
saffron (10-15 threads) 1/2 tsp turmeric + 1/2 tsp mild paprika
sage (1 tbsp) 3 to 4 tsp summer savory thyme, basil, or oregano; 1 tbsp rosemary; 1 to 2 tsp poultry seasoning
salami pepperoni, spanish chorizo, prosciutto, summer sausage
salmon trout, striped bass, tuna
savory (1 tbsp) 2 to 3 tsp chopped thyme or rosemary, 1 to 1 1/2 tsp thyme + 1 to 1/2 tsp mint, 1 to 2 tsp sage, 1 tsp herbes de Provence
scallion (1 bunch) 1 bunch green onions, 3 to 4 cups chopped leeks
scallops mussels, clams, oysters, shrimp, lobster
sesame oil, toasted (1 tsp) 2 tsp crushed and toasted sesame seeds + 1 tsp peanut oil
sesame seeds white or black poppy seeds; finely chopped peanuts, almonds, or cashews
shallot (1 chopped) 1/4 cup chopped leeks or red onions + 1/2 tsp minced garlic; 1/4 cup chopped green onions or scallions (white and light green parts only)
sherry sake, port, dry white wine + pinch of sugar
shrimp prawns, crab, lobster, scallops
snapper striped bass, grouper, halibut
sole flounder, cod, whiting
sorghum molasses light or dark corn syrup, honey, pure maple syrup
sour cream plain yogurt, 1/3 melted unsalted butter + 3/4 cup milk + 1 tsp lemon juice (for baking)
soy sauce (1 tbsp) scant 3/4 tsp kosher salt + 1/2 tsp granulated sugar dissolved in 1 tbsp hot water, teriyaki sauce
spinach beet greens, turnip greens, kale, arugula, watercess
stock, beef (1 cup) 1 cup boiling water + 1 beef bouillon cube, 1 cup canned beef broth, 1 cup red wine or beer (can replace up to half of beef stock in sauce and stews)
stock, chicken (1 cup) 1 cup boiling water + 1 chicken bouillon cube, 1 cup canned chicken broth
stock, vegetable (1 cup) 1 cup boiling water + 1 vegetable bouillon cube, 1 cup canned vegetable broth
strawberries raspberries, blueberries
striped bass grouper, red snapper
sugar, confectioner's (1 cup) 1/2 cup +  1 1/2 tbsp granulated sugar + 3/4 tsp cornstarch, fine ground in blender or food processor
sugar, dark brown (1 packed cup) 1 cup granulated sugar + 2 to 3 tbsp molasses
sugar, light brown (1 packed cup) 1 cup granulated sugar + 1 to 2 tbsp molasses, 1/2 cup dark brown sugar + 1/2 cup granulated sugar
summer sausage salami or other dry sausage, pepperoni, bologna
sweetened condensed milk (1 14 oz can) 1 cup evaporated milk + 1 1/4 cups granulated sugar, heated until sugar dissolves
sweet potato pumpkin, butternut squash
Swiss cheese Provolone cheese, Gruyère cheese
swordfish tuna, mahi-mahi, grouper, halibut
Ingredient: Substitute with:
taco seasoning (1 tbsp) 2 tsp pure chile powder + 1/4 tsp dried oregano + 1/4 tsp ground cumin + 1/8 tsp garlic powder + 1/8 tsp onion powder + pinch of cayenne pepper + salt to taste
tahini (1 cup) 3/4 cup peanut butter + 1/4 cup untoasted sesame oil
tarragon dill 
tequila vodka, light rum
teriyaki sauce (1/2 cup) 1/3 cup soy sauce + 3 tbsp rice vinegar + 3 tsp sugar or honey
thyme marjoram, oregano, basil, summer savory
tilapia red snapper, orange roughy, sole, flounder
tomatoes (1 lb) 1 1/2 cups canned whole tomatoes, 3 tbsp tomato paste (to replace cooked tomatoes)
tomato juice (1 cup) 1/2 cup tomato purée or tomato sauce + 1/2 cup water, 1/4 cup tomato paste + 3/4 cup water
tomato paste (1 tbsp) 2 to 3 tbsp tomato purée or tomato sauce, boil until reduced to 1 tbsp
tomato purée (1 cup) 1/3 cup tomato paste + 2/3 cup water, tomato sauce
tomato sauce (1 cup) 1/2 cup tomato paste + 1/2 cup water, 1 cup canned stewed tomatoes, blended until smooth
trout salmon, ocean perch
tuna swordfish, mahi-mahi, striped bass, salmon
turmeric (1/4 to 1/2 tsp) 1/4 to 1/2 tsp ground ginger + 1 to 2 tsp minced fresh ginger, 5 to 7 saffron threads, 1/2 tsp curry powder
turnips  parsnips, rutabaga, broccoli stems
turnip greens mustard greens, collards, kale, mature spinach
Ingredient: Substitute with:
vanilla bean (1 8-inch pod) 2 to 3 tsp vanilla extract
vegetable shortening (1 cup) 1 cup + 2 tbsp unsalted butter (baking), 1 cup bacon fat (sautéing and frying)
vermouth dry sherry, dry white wine
vinegar lemon juice or lime juice (for dressings, marinades, sauces, and deglazing pans)
vodka gin, white rum, tequila
Ingredient: Substitute with:
walnuts pine nuts, pecans, almonds
wasabi (1 tbsp) 1 tbsp well-drained prepared horseradish, 1 tbsp mustard powder + 1 tsp water (mix, cover, and let rest for 15 minutes)
watermelon honeydew melon
whipped cream (1 cup) 12 oz can evaporated milk, chilled overnight, mixed with 1 tbsp lemon juice, whipped until stiff, beat in 1 tsp vanilla extract and 1/4 cup confectioner's sugar
whiskey cognac, brandy, or rum
whitefish perch, lake trout
whiting cod, flounder, ocean perch, red snapper
wine, red (1 cup) 3/4 cup red grape juice + 2 tbsp red wine vinegar or lemon juice + 2 tbsp water (for marinades), beef stock (for sauces and stews)
wine, white (1 cup) 3/4 cup white grape juice, apple juice, or apple cider + 1/4 cup white wine vinegar or lemon juice (for marinades), sherry or vermouth, sake, chicken or vegetable stock (for sauce and stews)
worcestershire sauce (1 tbsp) 2 tsp soy sauce + 4 drops hot pepper sauce + 1/4 lemon juice + 1/4 tsp granulated sugar
Ingredient: Substitute with:
yellow squash zucchini, pattypan squash
yogurt sour cream, crème fraîche, silken tofu (blended), mayonnaise
Ingredient: Substitute with:
zucchini yellow squash, pattypan squash